More than Just Visiting : the ‘Villa’ 1969 and the Shelter Photographic Collection

Ripley Ville was the last of the Victorian industrial model villages to be built in the old West Riding of Yorkshire. Built between 1866 and 1881, it contained; Workmens Dwellings, a schools building and a school master’s house, an Anglican church, vicarage and alms houses. It was built across two sites to the north and south of Bowling Dyeworks and to the south of Bradford, near what later became Bowling Park.

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This post comes to you in the same week as:-

The need for vigilance to ensure there are no further losses to what remains of Ripleyville, Bowling Dyeworks or the Victorian Heritage of this part of Bowling and in particular the Grade II listed Ripleyville almshouses could not be clearer.

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National Media Museum : More than Just Visiting

In a further attempt to leave no stone unturned in the search for information about the industrial model village of Ripley Ville, I returned last Monday to the National Media Museum, here in Bradford. It was to look at a selection of photographs taken by Nick Hedges in May 1969. He had been commissioned to take photographs by Shelter, the housing charity, as part of its campaign against the poor housing conditions that existed at that time. He also took photographs of improved municipal housing.

I was looking for photographs of people, streets or houses of Ripleyville, or the ‘Villa’ as it was known by residents. This was the year before the final demolition of what remained on its northern site. By 1969, this was the workmen’s houses and the ‘schools’ building which for a long time had been used as a rent office for the Ripley Trust and as a garage and maintenance yard.

Decline of Ripleyville

Residents from the late 1930s to early 1960s have fond memories of the ‘Villa’.

Ripleyville postwar from the air

Ripleyville : northern site from the air circa 1951. St Bartholomew’s Church towards bottom corner right. Rows of post-war pre-fabs behind Mill upper right. Hall Lane running to right edge. Bowling curve to btm edge. Image courtesy Phill Davison. See full size at http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3696/10559187194_f1a5863176_o.jpg

But by the mid-sixties, the church which provided a spiritual and culltural resource for the community had gone out of use, fallen into disrepair and been partly demolished. The ‘Villa’ was in steep decline. A timeline for that decline can be traced through local newspaper reports. By 1969 the area’s sense of community as well as some of its houses were falling apart; the houses perhaps less so than the social fabric.

In September 1969 a report by Shelter that included Ripleyville amongst case studies of poor housing conditions was published. It added to pressure for a solution to a problem that had become progessively more embarrassing for those owning land and property, including Bradford Council and the Ripley Trust. There also seems to have been plans to take a new railway line straight through the middle of the village. Shelter’s claims in respect of Ripleyville were refuted. But, there is a sense in which a week in the glare of a national press spotlight made an incrementalist ‘make do and mend’ approach to the Villa’s physical and social fabric no longer tenable. Demolition would follow. Hence my interest in what the Media Museum’s Shelter Collection might hold.

St Bartholomew Church Ripleyville under demolition

St Bartholomew’s Church circa 1965 : photos courtesy Mick Watson

The Shelter Collection

Nick Hedges’ 1969 commission took him round cities and towns in England, Scotland and Wales. The National Media Museum has 900 images in its Shelter Collection. Sixty one of the photographs in the collection and by Nick Hedges are captioned as taken in Bradford. Listerhills and Manningham figure prominently. Other areas would be recognisable to those who lived in the city in the late 1960s. Street names recorded incidentally in the photograph or those more intentionally captured help identify other locales. For example:-

  •  A group photographed ‘at the back gate’ near Bower Green.
  • Newport Street and Newport Terrace in a photo captioned, The city is built on hill which run up from the central trough …’
  • Allen’s, No 105 in an unspecified street and an off-licence and herbalist offering ‘Harehound Brew’, Sasparilla and ‘Real Indian Pills’.
  • The chimney of H Hey & Co.
  • A photograph showing cards in the window of the Takhar Indo-Pak Estate Agency (Regd.) at 379 Leeds Road .  One of the cards is for 87 New Cross Street, BD5.

The images provided a fascinating glimpse of Bradford 54 years ago but the last of these images seems to be as close to BD4, Ripleyville or Bowling Dyeworks as the collection takes you. I cannot for certain say -‘none of the photographs were of ‘the Villa’ – only that I did not recognise any as such. Some photos featured interiors of property and others people in close up with fewer clues to their location.

This does lead to a number of questions.

If you were a resident in Ripleyville in May 1969 do you remember a photographer from Shelter visiting. Did you talk to anyone from Shelter?

Whether a resident of Ripleyville or not, did you read the Shelter report? Did you have a copy of it?

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Additional information

I was made aware of the photographs of the Shelter Collection through a Nick Hedges’ photograph taken in Sheffield that was in a small exhibition at the Media Museum featuring Yorkshire villages and towns that would be visited by ‘Le Tour’.

The photographs I viewed were on 5 contact sheets. As the selection below shows their description and captioning varies from the detailed to the more mundane or cryptic.

1983-5235/53 Estate Agent’s windows 1969-05 Gelatin silver print entitled ‘Estate Agent’s windows’.
1983-5235/54 Girls looking through wire mesh fence 1969-05 Gelatin silver print entitled ‘Girls looking through wire mesh fence’.
1983-5235/55 Patrick, Mrs B’s eldest boy 1969-05 Gelatin silver print entitled ‘Patrick, Mrs B’s eldest boy’.
1983-5235/56 Untitled 1969-05 Untitled and uncaptioned gelatin silver photograph taken in Bradford by Nick Hedges, May 1969.
1983-5235/57 Untitled 1969-05 Untitled gelatin silver print of a landscape showing chimney, water cooling tower, smoke and water vapour, photographed by Nick Hedges, May 1969
1983-5235/58 Untitled 1969-05 Untitled gelatin silver print of boys playing football on waste ground; chimney and cooling tower in background photographed by Nick Hedges, May 1969
1983-5235/59 Hill Terrace, Bradford 1969-05 Gelatin silver print entitled ‘Hill Terrace, Bradford’.
1983-5235/60 Within a mile of the City Centre 1969-05 Gelatin silver print entitled ‘Within a mile of the City Centre’.
1983-5235/61 Skipping school, nowhere to go 1969-05 Gelatin silver print entitled ‘Skipping school, nowhere to go’.

A selection of Nick Hedges photographs from the Shelter Collection will be going on a touring exhibition later in the year, starting in London.

My thanks to Rebecca Smith for making the photographs available and aiding my search.

 

1850s Lustrous Orleans : natural or dyed alpaca worsted?

Ripley Ville was the last of the Victorian industrial model villages to be built in the old West Riding of Yorkshire. Built between 1866 and 1881, it contained; Workmens Dwellings, a schools building and a school master’s house, an Anglican church, vicarage and alms houses. It was built across two sites to the north and south of Bowling Dyeworks in Bowling to the south of Bradford near what later became Bowling Park.

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This post looks again at the relationship between Bowling Dyeworks and Salts Mill in the mid-Victorian period. This is a largely unexplored relationship but what went on between the two businesses may help us understand why the industrial model villages of Ripley Ville and Saltaire were built, how they compare and how they were paid for. Because you are probably in holiday mood or even on holiday the post also includes some photographs of alpacas. Most are of one being sheared. The more serious aim is to set up a series of questions about how the mixed worsted cloths called ‘lustrous Orleans’ were finished.  In the 1850s would the lustrous Orleans that used alpaca fibre have been dyed or not? Were Bowling Dyeworks and Messrs Ripley likely to have done the dyeing?

 

close up colour photograph of head of aplaca

Copyright R L Walker 2014

1850s Lustrous worsteds : natural or dyed alpaca fibre?

Salts Mill, Bowling Dyeworks and lustrous worsteds

Salts and lustrous Worsteds

Lustrous mixed worsted cloths of the mid-19th century that were produced in the Worsted District of Yorkshire used a lustrous fibre in the weft; commonly mohair, famously at Salts Mill alpaca or possibly angora, vicuna or other fibres. This was most commonly combined with a cotton warp to give the cloth strength. Aided by the fictionalised description given by Charles Dickens in ‘Household Words’, Titus Salt’s role in buying alpaca fibre at Liverpool Docks from ‘C W & F Foozle & Co’ and working out how to spin it are a staple of the Salts story and part of the folklore of the industrial model village of Saltaire  – just as they were in Worstedopolis (mid to late Victorian Bradford) a century and a half ago. (see Holroyd A, 1973,  pages 9-12)

Alpaca fibre has properties that make it attractive for many reasons. In the mid-nineteenth century it was its lustrous quality and ‘shades and tints, that led demand in womenswear and fashion cloths.

One of the best contemporary accounts, from Abraham Holroyd, makes this clear. (Holroyd A 1873 page 29)

From page 29, 'Saltaire and its Founder' Abraham Holroyd orig 1873, republished June 2000

From page 29, ‘Saltaire and its Founder’ Abraham Holroyd orig 1873

 Bowling Dyeworks and lustrous worsteds

The Bowling Dyeworks story and its mid century dominance in worsted dyeing was achieved in two-stages;

circa 1830s : black dyeing of mixed worsteds and most particularly bombazine or cloths of the range that mixed cotton warps and silk in the weft. (1)

circa 1840s : the dyeing of mixed worsteds in the piece (after weaving). This included the range of lustrous Orleans cloths as they were developed and became fashionable.

It is clear that by the early 1880s Bowling Dyeworks was majoring in dyeing mohair fibre and cloths. But what were they doing in the 1850s?

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Messrs Ripleys’ Scheme, the vote & a one shilling portrait

Ripley Ville was the last of the Victorian industrial model villages to be built in the old West Riding of Yorkshire. Built between 1866 and 1881, it contained; Workmens Dwellings, a schools building and a school master’s house, an Anglican church, vicarage and alms houses. It was built across two sites to the north and south of Bowling Dyeworks in Bowling to the south of Bradford near what became Bowling Park.

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1856, February 1866 and November 1868. Three ‘firsts'; a studio portrait, having your name down for one of Messrs Ripleys’ Working-Mens Dwellings and, as a working man, being able to vote. This post brings together an advertisement for a commercial photographer with a studio in south Bradford from 1856, Messrs Ripleys’ re-promotion of their Scheme for Workmens Dwellings in February 1866 and those people who gave Ripley Ville as the place where their ownership or rental of property entitled them to vote in the 1868 General Election – for the first time and very probably for H W Ripley. The post lists, by name and address, 70 residents from the industrial model village of Ripley Ville who may have voted for the first time in that election.

Copy of upper portion and headlines of notice advertising Messrs Ripleys Schemme for building Workmen's Dwellings

First ‘first’

Re-promotion of Messrs Ripleys’ Scheme

There had already been a photographer’s studio near the junction of Caledonia Street and Wakefield Road, for ten years, when Messrs Ripley held their follow-up meeting in February 1866 to re-promote their Scheme for the building of a number of Working Men’s dwellings in Bowling. The plans for the Scheme, as submitted by the architects Andrews Son and Pepper, and for 254 houses, had been passed by the Borough council’s Building and Improvement Committee on January 24th 1866.  A December 1865 meeting had been anticipated. The ‘Notice’ now issued by Messrs Ripley scheduled the meeting for “Friday next [26th February], at 7 O’clock in the warehouse of the Patent Melange Works, Spring Mill Street.” (1)

 Portrait studio of Joseph Bottomley

The enterprising photographer – and grave-stone cutter – was a Joseph Bottomley. He had announced the commencement of the business and ‘the creation of “a gallery suitable for the occasion and convenient to the public …’, through an advertisement in Lund’s 1856 Trade Directory of Bradford – and no doubt elsewhere. Bottomley was offering a framed and coloured portrait for ‘from one shilling each, and upwards …’ His likenesses ‘taken and framed in a few minutes’, he warranted to ‘imitate life’.

monchrome scan of advertisement Continue reading →

From Saltaire ‘stercorarium’ to Ripley Ville water-closets in ten years?

Ripley Ville was the last of the Victorian industrial model villages to be built in the old West Riding of Yorkshire. Built between 1866 and 1881, it contained; Workmens Dwellings, a schools building and a school master’s house, an Anglican church, vicarage and alms houses. It was built across two sites to the north and south of Bowling Dyeworks in Bowling to the south of Bradford near what became Bowling Park.

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The industrial model villages of Yorkshire’s Worsted District provide fascinating insights into what was happening at the leading edge for the design and specifications of housing for the working classes during the mid to late 19th century. A recent article in the Saltaire Sentinel based on research by Richard Coomber takes us back to Saltaire in 1858. The description of the sanitary arrangements in general and of the Saltaire stercoracium (privy) make the search for proof of the installation of water-closets in the Workmens Dwellings in Ripley Ville even more pressing and the task more exacting. This post draws on what Richard Coomber has found out about provision in Saltaire and then gives an up-date on the Ripley Ville water-closets controversy. It ends by asking for your help.

Saltaire and Ripley Ville houses

Finer grained analysis

Previous posts have looked at the privy arrangements of Saltaire as improvements on those found in houses elsewhere locally. These were for what might be called ‘the lower orders’ when their building started in Saltaire and who were rather more likely to be called ‘the working classes’ by the time Ripley Ville was built. The label applied in Messrs Ripleys scheme for “Workmens Dwellings” is telling in what it neglects; the contribution of women, children, lodgers and boarders to the household income and for payment of housing costs. Locally the contrast is usually drawn between the dwellings of Bradford (bad) and what was built at Saltaire (good). Yet, a recent visit to archives held outside West Yorkshire revealed a description of Bradford in 1839 as ‘picturesque’. Made by a prominent newcomer to the town, who was impressed with the visual impact of the yorkstone buildings with their slate roofs and the buoyant state of its trade, this suggests a much finer grained analysis is needed. Efforts elsewhere within the Worsted District to improve the housing of industrial workers by enlightened employers and by borough and town councils through new bye-laws and attempts at enforcement should also be credited. What the Ripley Ville water-closet story may illustrate is that in Bradford in the late 1860s progress on sanitary reform involved two steps forward and two steps back – only one of which, to the bye-law ‘tunnel-backs’, was a bit of a side-step.

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Treasure Map and Tea-bag Boundaries : Where was Ripley Ville built? Part 1

Where was Ripleyville built? A simple question – deceptively so. This post uses a short quiz to tease out the strands of thinking wrapped up in the question. They show that arriving at an answer is not as simple as drawing a few coloured lines on Wiki P – or putting ‘X marks the spot’ on a treasure map. The post is the first of two that look at the question in detail. A linked post uses the idea of tea-bag boundaries to draw out relationships between locales and neighbourhoods and looks at place-names as they were used when Ripley Ville was built. In particular it looks at the relationship between Ripley Ville, Victorian west Bowling and the Ripleys’ estate.

This post focuses more on location and chronology; what was built where and in what order 100 years or so before the village became “buried treasure”.

Image ofMap of an island with palm trees mountain stream and X marking where treasure buried

Treasure Map

To most of us treasure maps are works of fiction. The Victorian industrial model village of Ripley Ville may be buried treasure but it wasn’t a work of fiction. It was, to a large though not total extent, demolished by 1970. Finding it requires us to follow sets of clues and trails at least as fascinating as the best fiction. The type of clues, how you think about them and assemble your evidence require that you first unwrap the question,‘Where was Ripleyville built?’ As this post shows, unwrapping it will involve us in following the plot of this part of south Bradford’s very local geography and its particular Victorian history. If we can discover where things happened and when, we can see them in relation to each other and get them in chronological order.

 

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Quick quiz.

This is the prime site for rediscovering Ripleyville – the best researched and most comprehensive on the Victorian industrial model village of Ripley Ville.

Picking up on the theme of primes, the quiz lists not ten but eleven possible answers that describe where Ripleyville might be found.

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Just Visiting 4 : West Hill Park & Akroydon – again

I had a very interesting return visit to Halifax last week. Dry, slightly overcast but bright enough, the weather provided a good opportunity for taking photographs. I wanted to get a range of shots of the houses in West Hill Park and Akroydon; the town’s two industrial model villages. Last time when I went to the Bankfield Museum, with a plan to also photograph Akroydon, it rained. This time I got the shots I wanted. They are for a print publication I am working on. It is one of several rediscovering Ripleyville activities that are keeping me busy off-blog and off the web-site.

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West Hill Park

West Park Hill was the surprise package. Imagine Victorian Ripley Ville had survived. Think of West Bowling in south Bradford as it is now in the 21st century. That’s how West Hill Park is.

Front-facing rows of terraces

The novel arrangement of front facing rows of terraces in West Hill Park immediately conjured up a picture of what the inner rows of Saville Street and Sloane Street in Ripley Ville might have looked like.

West Hill Park inward facing terraced houses

copyright R L Walker 2014

I’m not sure how the height of the houses and distance between them compares. Anyone out there ever been to both?

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Ripley Ville houses : Contracts Seasons and Drying-out time

This post poses questions that are of interest for both of the old Borough of Bradford’s industrial model villages. Its about the houses of Victorian Ripley Ville and Saltaire. It goes back to the beginning when they were built. The core question is about the drying-out time for newly built and newly plastered Victorian terraced houses for ‘Working Men’.  The schedule of contracts for Ripley Ville and Saltaire differs. With only two exceptions, the ‘contracts to let’ for Saltaire were not placed during late autumn or the winter months. In Ripley Ville one of the four contracts for houses was’ let’ in the first week in November 1866.  Would this be because of the effect of wetter, colder weather on drying out times for the houses and when they could be ready to live in?

Saltaire and Ripley Ville houses            The photograph left shows the end terrace houses of Saltaire on Caroline Street.  The houses of Ripley Terrace are shown for Ripley Ville

Ripleyville Houses : Contracts, Seasons & Drying-out times

In the Victorian Arts, Crafts & Sciences page of this web-site are two questions about Drying-out times for Working Mens houses.

They asks:-

‘How long might it take for a newly-built, newly plastered cottage/working man’s house to dry out in the mid-to-late Victorian era?’

and

Why?

The questions are part of an effort to understand the phases for the building and drying out times for workmen’s houses in the industrial model villages of Ripleyville and Saltaire. (1)

Ripley Ville Contracts & Houses

 At Ripleyville 196 cottages were built. This is from a total of 200 put out to tender in the twelve months between March 22nd 1866 and March 21st 1867. Plans for 254 houses had been passed by the Building and Improvement Committee of Bradford Borough Council in January 1866. Contracts were then let in March, July and November of 1866 and finally in March 1867. The November 1866 contract was the largest at 75 houses. (Walker, 2008 : 15)

Saltaire Contract & Houses

In their book ‘Saltaire the making of a model town’, Jackson, Lintonbon and Staples (2010 : 66 ) note that only two of the Saltaire contracts were placed in the autumn. This included the 15th contract, ‘consisting of SIXTY-NINE HOUSES’ , placed in October 1869. Later they refer to the 10th contract advertised on 10th March 1860 and approved by the Shipley Local Health Board on 15th May 1860. Using Census data for 1861, when 27 of the 64 houses were unoccupied, Jackson and his co-authors ( 2010 : 71) speculate that the houses may not have been ‘completed internally or some were still drying out’  by early April of the following year. Citing the need to avoid occupation of ‘damp houses in the cold winter months; tuberculosis or consumption, was always a risk’,  they conclude that for Saltaire  ‘a seasonal cycle starting with the contracts being advertised in the early spring and the houses being completed about eleven or twelve month later, would seem to have worked best’. Evidence in support of their interpretation of events is not offered.

More evidence needed

Variations from the norm

If this was a contracting and building practice common to the Worsted area of the West Riding or more locally, the Ripley Ville schedule looks both more compressed and varies from it. Two of the 16 Saltaire contracts did vary from this norm, including the 15th contract scheduled nearer the two years of construction for the Ripley Ville houses. Explanations for this variability (Ripley Ville 1 : 4, Saltaire 2 : 16) start to look interesting. An explanation based in seasonality and drying-out times – rather than one that factors it in – starts to feel less satisfactory.

How the information will help

For Ripley Ville the time taken to dry-out and for internal completion are pieces of evidence that can help establish when any of the Ripley Ville houses could first have been lived in. Was this during 1866 or not until the following year. (2) It would also help to sort out which of the four contracts for the Ripleyville houses led to water-closets actually being installed. For Saltaire a more rounded picture for the context of its building may appear. An incomplete example of the kind of periods involved is given in the text accompanying the carousel of images for a relatively small-scale project to replace a lath and plaster ceiling here

The topic is something that clearly bears further investigation and debate. Factors like how the rental market and the one for house sales worked, prevailing attitudes to the new ‘model’ houses of each village and whether there were disruptions to building schedules from labour shortages or strikes in any particular year are, amongst others, also worth a look.

How you can contribute

If you can help with information about likely schedules for the construction of Working Mens houses in the 1860s and particularly on drying-out times for houses (stone-built using black lime mortar and Victorian plastering techniques) then use the comment box below. If you need more information you can use the contact form on the Victorian Arts Crafts & Sciences page to get in touch.

Please feel free to pass on this request for information, if you know someone who can help.

Notes

1.  For brevity I am including all the Ripley Ville houses and those of Saltaire under the ‘Working Mens’ houses label. Only the Ripley Ville houses can as named, rather than as built or occupied, be so described.

2.  In a paragraph on Ripleyville on the Just Visiting & News Update 2 page of the web-site, I speculate that some houses were ready to move into by late summer 1867 and invite you to imagine the scene.

Bibliography

2010  Jackson N et al, ‘Saltaire : the making of a model town’ , Spire Books, Reading

2008 Walker R L, ‘When was Ripleyville built?’ SEQUALS, Shipley

last updated 2014/03/11

Houses of Ripley Ville and the Villa

This is a re-post of content that appeared on the blog in mid-November 2012. It shows early versions of content now on the not-yet-a-Wikipedia page for Ripleyville by Peter Knowles. I have left it unedited. It expresses the surprise and excitement and the right notes of caution about the content Peter sent and some of its meaning for rediscovering Ripleyville.

I would at this point just add a number of additional points of caution.  With the help and prompting of the ‘Gentlemen of the Villa’ (ex-residents put in touch through this web-site) Peter has done architectural reconstructions for the church of St Bartholomew and the houses of the Villa i.e. projections backwards from the 1960s, while also using large scale maps from the 1890s. The example of St Bartholomews Church, below, indicates one of the stages involved in such a process. For the houses, the full set of architectural drawings and plans have still to be found.

St Bartholomews Church Lambeth Palace & OS map compared

Missing from Peter’s ‘wiki’ are the school master’s house and the building’s of the village’s southern site; the vicarage and the almshouses.

On the water-closets controversy we may have narrowed down what may have happened 1866-69. Peter’s deductions need better evidencing. He also down-plays the water-closets’ significance. This comes both from their historic significance; their installation in a group of Working Mens housing by 1868 (Where is there an earlier example in the UK?) and their place in the Saltaire,West Park Hill, Akroydon, Ripley Ville progression; that is their actual installation in the forth of the industrial model villages built in the Worsted District of the West Riding.

Two detailed post on the ‘Water-closet Controversy‘, in the Members Area, are password protected. They are accessible to ‘Friends of Ripleyville’ registering through the sign-up form (side-bar right) →

The original title of the post was ‘An Amazing Attachment’. It was published 2012/11/17 and follows

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Write note & random Quote 4

The ‘Write note’ and ‘random Quote’ for this month span the period 1868 to 1873, when the last of the Workmens’ houses, the Schools building and Anglican church of St Bartholomew were being built in the industrial model village of Ripleyville. The Write note features ‘A Bowling Resident’ who complains in July 1868 about smoke from Bowling Dyeworks and of not having enough water for washing or to use their water-closet or bath.  The random Quote is from Archibald Neill, who was a major building contractor in Bradford in the 1860s to early 1870s and needs to be added to the list of possible builders for Ripleyville. The quote is from a paper ‘On the Bradford Building Trades’ delivered in 1873 at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Alongside figures for the size of the various trades and occupations involved and when machinery could be used, it contains the curious claim that Bradford’s mid-Victorian buildings (including those in Ripleyville?) were erected largely without scaffolding.

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Write note [4] : ‘The Water Supply’ Bowling 1868

My notes for this item are taken from the more radical of Bradford’s two newspapers of the 1860s; the Bradford Daily Telegraph. The notes are of a letter to the newspaper published on July 25th 1868 and signed ‘A Bowling Resident’ and concern ‘The Water Supply’, or more accurately the lack of water-supply. They also touch on mid-Victorian Bradford’s notorious smoke problem.

The resident begins:-

“… I happen to be one of those who pay for a bath and water-closet, neither of which are now available.

adding

[there is] not enough water to keeps hands and face clean”

water supply letter Bowling Resident 1868

S/he continues;

“I must inform you that from the contiguity of my residence to Bowling Dyeworks, my hands and face require a deal of water to keep them clean, because of the large quantity of smoke emitted from these dye-works daily, not excepting Sundays.”

source : Bradford Daily Telegraph 25th July 1868, page 4, col 2.

Mystery Resident : Just who is writing this letter and their motives remain unclear.

As to ‘who’, the language – educated if a little flowery and overdone in the Victorian manner- , the ability to pay for a water-closet and bath and the willlingness, at least behind a mask of anonymity, to take on the area’s main employer and their works suggest this is not a Ripleyville resident or, conversely, that they are a very independent-minded one or of independent means.[C]ontiguity’, if the writer was using it in its strictest sense and not in exaggeration, means ‘touching’ – so they are claiming to live very near the Works.

On their motivations perhaps the simplest is most tenable. They really were fed up with the lack of water, especially where they paid extra for the supply to their water-closet and ‘plumbed-in’ bath. If a plumbed-in bath, it would be even more unlikely to be a Ripleyville resident. We might also think that they are sufficiently aware, or affiliated politically to send their letter to the Telegraph, which would be more likely to print it.

Back story – smoke : Regulation of smoke-emissions from the many Bradford Mill and Works chimneys lay with the Borough council, who could bring infringements before the local magistrate’s court. There is evidence of Mill owners who were also Borough magistrates avoiding prosecution for smoke emissions. H W Ripley was particularly proud of devices fitted at the Dyeworks that ‘consumed’ smoke. Whatever their claimed effectiveness the note – and the letter it is based on – show smoke was emitted from the dye-works seven-days a week. I am reminded of the images on this site of Ripleyville where washing is hung-out to dry; it was not just faces and hands that needed to be kept clean. Prompted by his glass-plate images from the 1920s, Graham Austin imagines what it must have been like to do the washing then. What must it have been like in the 1870s?

Back story – water supply : As with other aspects of infrastructure, there was a non-stop battle to meet the needs of Bradford’s growing population both before and after the Town Council was incorporated in 1847 and before and after the then Bradford Borough Council took over responsibility for water supply by the late 1860s. At the point when this letter was written the Borough Council had complete responsibility for water-supply. It is they through Bradford Waterworks who would be being paid extra for water-closet and bath. Twelve to fifteen months before there is the possibility that this Bowling resident may have been taking water from the Ripleys through Bowling Waterworks. Ripley’s interest in and ability to supply water was bought out by the Council in 1867. Maybe, in changing from one to the other, the supply had got worse? At the moment its a mystery – a dried-up face-cloth wrapped in a blanket of smoke.

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random Quote [4] :  The Bradford Building Trades 1873

The random Quote moves us on 5 years. It is from a paper presented at the British Association for Advancement of Science in 1873. The paper’s title was ‘On the Bradford Building Trades’ and it was presented by Archibald Neill. He was a Scotsman and came to Bradford where he was involved in the building trades as building contractor, in quarrying and in brick-making. There are claims that the firm was one of the largest in Bradford, that he was a model employer and pioneered improved building techniques. In his caption to the warehouse of Law, Russell & Co in Little Germany in Bradford, John S Roberts wrote of the building ‘its flamboyance belies its brilliance’ . ‘The building is a monument to the contractor Archibald Neill (1825-1874). … The building was built in 19 months…’ Neill died of a stomach complaint soon afterwards.

The quotes below are from the paper he delivered a year before at the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in Bradford in 1873.

There is little machinery at work in the stone trade of this district as yet… stone dressing and moulding machines … are not adapted to work the hard stone …

While he writes that 10% of work with stone may be done by machine he estimated that 60% of work with wood carried out by the carpenters and joiners, machine joiners and steam-sawyers was aided by machine. He adds:-

The small amount of scaffolding used by builders in Bradford is a peculiarity, and must attract the attention of strangers. Our large mills and warehouses are raised without the aid of the forest of poles or heavy timbers to be seen in other towns.

Amongst the related trades outside of quarrying, stone getting and the stone-masons,  for Bradford in 1873, he lists:-

200 plasterers, 200 plumbers and glaziers, 50 slaters, 1300 excavators, carpenters and labourers, 400 painters, 300 smiths and mechanics and 600 employed in brick-making.

Plot thickens? : The firm of A Neill need to added to the possible contractors for the Ripleyville buildings. Neill would have been known to Henry Wm Ripley. He was involved in the political process to nominate and support candidates in Bradford’s parliamentary elections of 1867 and 1868 and the by-election of 1869.

The pen portrait below is from one of the many political cartoons relating to the period. In it Neill is identified simply as ‘Archy’. From a Ripleyville point of view, we need to ask, ‘Is the church in Archy’s hod a symbol of his religious and political allegiances or a reference to recent contracts for church building?’

N B  It is not a drawing of St Bartholomews Church

pen portrait 'Archy' Neill carrying hod on shoulder with a church in it

detail of cartoon ‘We Have No Work To Do-o-o!’, from own collection, c. 1868

St Bartholomews Church : In 1870, the contract for St Bartholomews Church in Ripleyville had to be re-advertised. It may have been considered challenging both architecturally and from the cramped and sloping site. Existing relationships of the potential contractor to the Church’s Building Committee (1) and to the architects (2) may have had as much influence on who was chosen, as those to H M Ripley – in spite of the latter’s gift of the land and other smaller contributions to costs.

Notes 

(1)  Memorial Committee of Charles Hardy

(2)  Plans and designs were drawn up by the Bradford-based firm of Francis Healey (b 1835 – d 1910) and Thomas Henry Healey (b 1839 – d 1910). Work was carried forward by the firm of Healey and Hand to the designs and drawings of F Healey and T H Healey.

Source : the archive of the Incorporated Church Building Society (ICBS)

Bibliography

Roberts John S, 1977, Little Germany City Trail No 3, Arts Galleries & Museums, City of Bradford Metropolitan Council

last updated 20140215

Missing : the Colour Supplement in Bradford’s Heritage offer – Part 2

The review so far … the post to come

This post is a continuation. It is the last in a series of 4 posts prompted by visits to the ‘Cloth & Memory {2} exhibition in the Spinning Room in Salts 1853 Mill, in October 2013. It picks up on the idea that there are supplementary histories and a ‘Colour Supplement’ that are missing in Bradford’s Heritage offer. These would contain the histories and a heritage offer that, in presenting Victorian Worstedopolis, gave proper weight to the roles of;

  • Bradford’s dyers and finishers, particularly Edward Ripley & Son and Bowling Dyeworks,
  • Ripley Ville – south Bradford’s industrial model village
  • the village’s main sponsor, innovator in worsted dyeing and principal partner in the Dyeworks; Henry William Ripley (1)

Postheadercomposite Like its companion post this one picks up on some of the ideas underpinning and informing the works in the Cloth & Memory {2} exhibition. The word ‘supplement’ was first used in its conventional sense in the post ‘Cloth & Memory {2} : Mutable Frame of Reference‘ and then in a stronger Deriddean sense in ‘Missing : the Colour Supplement in Bradford’s Heritage offer – Part 1‘.

This post draws on but also moves away from of the central idea of the supplement to look at the thinking behind Maxine Briscoe’s exhibit ‘Mutable Frame of Reference – Installation – Materials’ rather than the exhibit itself. To the ideas, found there, on ‘mutability’ and ‘the contingent’ – as against stability, coherence, continuity and the unifying narrative – this post adds the postmodern idea of the ‘trace’. It does so to introduce questions about how local history can be thought about and how it may be written about and used.

Then returning to the idea of the Deriddean supplement it locates emptinesses in the structures that stand for, contain or support Bradford’s Heritage offer. The post ends by looking forward to a renewal of Bradford’s Heritage offer with some thoughts and suggestions about the challenges and opportunities for making good what is missing, by adding the Colour Supplement.

There is a contact form at the end of the post for you to get in touch.

Using two images, two hyperlinks and very few words, the post starts with an anecdote, makes contrasts, evokes the 1890s, the 1950s and the present – and may predict a child’s future memory.

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